The classification existing in Ukraine clearly separates the concepts of non-ferrous and ferrous metals. The former include metals that do not contain iron and its alloys: aluminum, copper, zinc, tin, lead, titanium and magnesium. In extreme cases, their content may be minimal, of secondary importance. Instead, foreign experts call non-ferrous metals and alloys “non-iron”.
This group of metals, despite its relatively high cost, is widely used in many industries and is considered a very valuable technical raw material.
The advantages of non-ferrous metals over ferrous ones are as follows:
Another additional factor is the rather specific effect of moisture (liquid) and oxygen on them – acting superficially, they do not penetrate inside at all.
Due to their manufacturability, non-ferrous metals have good casting properties and are easily processed by cutting and pressure. Valuable specific properties make some of them indispensable for the production of certain parts, automatic assemblies and instrument assemblies. The plasticity of this material allows it to:
The most widely used:
All of them are rarely used in their pure form, in most cases alloys are used. Various types are classified into:
The light ones include aluminum, magnesium, potassium, titanium metals and alloys. Their specific gravity (density) is the lowest among all other non-ferrous metals.
Heavy metals are those obtained from polymetallic ores. When they are mined, rare and noble ones come across. The total production of heavy metals is millions of tons annually. Methods for obtaining them are complex and diverse. This is what guarantees the maximum extraction of all valuable components from them.
Noble non-ferrous metals are noted for their high resistance to aggressive environments. They do not oxidize at all and do not undergo corrosive processes, which determines their high quality. Absolutely everything belongs to precious metals.
Refractory non-ferrous metals have a high density, their melting point is over 2000 °C, and they are resistant to wear.
Dispersed elements do not occur as independent minerals and concentrated deposits. They are found only as impurities in various minerals (salts, coals, phosphorites).
Rare earths are silvery-white metals with similar properties. +3 oxidation state.
Radioactive non-ferrous metals are obtained after nuclear reactions. All of them emit radioactive particles.
Thus, non-ferrous alloys can be purchased in the form of rolled metal, which is successfully used in production. Delivery across Ukraine of non-ferrous metals and their alloys is carried out in the form of semi-finished products for subsequent use.
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