Metal casting is one of the main methods for manufacturing various parts. Moreover, some items and products simply cannot be produced by any other method. In principle, the technology of this process does not depend on the raw materials used. The only nuances can be considered the shrinkage of a particular material. Shrinkage refers to the decrease in the volume of the metal as it cools and the temperature required for melting. These figures can vary significantly depending on the material.
Differences of aluminum casting
This element is a fusible white material. It is chemically active, which under normal conditions is a positive quality. When it reacts with oxygen, a thin, but extremely strong film is formed on its surface, which prevents further oxidation of aluminum.
But there is another side of the coin here. If raw materials are melted in the open air, then a mixture of this metal with its oxides is formed as a result. Thus aluminum casting gets significantly worse performance. Therefore, in order to avoid the negative effect of oxygen on the liquid metal, the melting process is carried out in an airless environment. It is processed in completely sealed conditions. In modern industry, custom-made aluminum casting is carried out in one of three ways:
in a chill mold;
in clay-sand forms.
Aluminum pressure die casting differs from all other methods and allows you to get parts with higher strength. Such characteristics are ensured by the fact that the element is affected not only by its own weight, but also by an additional pressure of at least 70 kg / s. The main advantages of the method are the following:
rapid achievement of the melting point by the material;
accurate supply of the amount of raw materials necessary to obtain the workpiece;
the possibility of full automation of the entire process;
obtaining high-quality parts due to exposure to sufficiently high pressure.
Due to this pressure, the speed of movement of the melt also increases, which means that the pouring speed decreases. Thus, labor productivity is significantly increased. Moreover, the products obtained in this way do not require additional mechanical processing. The only exceptions are cases where you need to drill a hole that is difficult to obtain otherwise.
Features of sand casting
This process is carried out from top to bottom. The advance of the melt is carried out through special sprues. Also, the form is equipped with the so-called “profit”. It is made large enough, taking into account the significant shrinkage of the metal, its tendency to oxidize and slag formation. This is also the reason that it is placed as close to the form as possible. In the manufacture of large parts, these profits can be several.
Their function is to eliminate the risk of voids and achieve the required density of the product. To obtain a good quality casting, it is necessary that the mixture has a high thermal conductivity to prevent the formation of cracks and pores during the solidification of the metal. The surface of the part will be cleaner, the finer the sand fraction used.
Advantages of die casting
A chill mold is a metal reusable form. Before each pouring of aluminum, it must first be prepared. This process consists of the following steps:
removal of melt residues from the previous filling from the inner surface of the mold;
applying a protective layer to the inner surface;
if necessary, installation of rods;
mold assembly from component parts.
After carrying out the steps described above, you can start pouring aluminum. Next, you need to wait until it hardens and remove the resulting product from the mold. After that, the workpiece is subjected to mechanical and heat treatment.
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